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Although it's getting a lot of flak from publishers and authors, Google Books is one of the most amazing contributions to world knowledge launched on the web in years. The ability to search the full text of thousands of books published prior to 1923 -- and hence in the public domain -- is amazing. I've been poking around it for a while, and I found something today while studying how Americans used the term "redskins" before Washington's NFL team chose that repulsive racist mascot in 1933.

In the 1915 book Making the Movies, author Ernest Alfred Dench wrote a section giving advice to filmmakers on hiring Native Americans as actors. Here it is in full:

The Dangers of Employing Redskins as Movie Actors

It is only within the last two or three years that genuine Redskins have been employed in pictures. Before then these parts were taken by white actors made up for the occasion. But this method was not realistic enough to satisfy the progressive spirit of the producer.

The Red Indians who have been fortunate enough to secure permanent engagements with the several Western film companies are paid a salary that keeps them well provided with tobacco and their worshipped "fire water."

It might be thought that this would civilise them completely, but it has had a quite reverse effect, for the work affords them an opportunity to live their savage days over again, and they are not slow to take advantage of it.

They put their heart and soul into the work, especially in battles with the whites, and it is necessary to have armed guards watch over their movements for the least sign of treachery. They naturally object to acting in pictures where they are defeated, and it requires a good deal of coaxing to induce them to take on such objectionable parts.

Once a white player was seriously wounded when the Indians indulged in a bit too much realism with their clubs and tomahawks. After this activity they had their weapons padded to prevent further injurious use of them.

With all the precautions that are taken, the Redskins occasionally manage to smuggle real bullets into action; but happily they have always been detected in the nick of time, though on one occasion some cowboys had a narrow escape during the producing of a Bison film.

Even to-day a few white players specialise in Indian parts. They are pastmasters in such roles, for they have made a complete study of Indian life, and by clever make-up they are hard to tell from real redskins. They take leading parts, for which Indians are seldom adaptable.

To act as an Indian is the easiest thing possible, for the Redskin is practically motionless.

-- Rogers Cadenhead

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Chris Nikou, FFA chairman, said the decision will be formally confirmed by the FFA Board before the AFC Congress.


 

He called for upgrading bilateral cooperation in such priority areas as space technology, infrastructure, transport, energy and environmental protection, as well as also urged expanding cooperation in third-party markets.


 

China as well as ASEAN already reached an Declaration on the Conduct of the Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) years ago, as well as have been seeking an more robust code of conduct.


 

Co-chairing the meeting with the Chinese premier, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, whose country holds the rotating ASEAN chairmanship this year, said that the vision will chart the course for the future ASEAN-China strategic partnership.


 

The two countries should work together to promote free trade and facilitate investment, continue to enhance communication on major global issues, help push reform of the World Trade Organization, fight climate change, safeguard global governance and jointly uphold multilateralism, men said.


 

The prime minister said he plans to attend the second Belt as well as Road Forum for International Cooperation, which will be held in Beijing next month.


 

Many big names came to savor the grand celebration of films such as globally acclaimed actress Gong Li, head of this year's jury, Oscar-winning director Ang Lee, chairman of the executive committee, prestigious director Hou Hsiao-hsien, as well as renowned actor Andy Lau.


 

During their talks, men as well as Conte also agreed that the two countries should jointly uphold multilateralism, promote free trade and cement ties between China and the European Union.


 

President men as well as Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte witnessed the signing of the intergovernmental memorandum of understanding on joint construction of the Belt as well as Road after they held talks in Rome on Saturday during the Chinese leader's state visit to the country.


 

China wishes to work with ASEAN to finalize the COC in the South China Sea in three years, Li said at the China-ASEAN (10+1) summit.


 

The prime minister said he plans to attend the second Belt as well as Road platform for International Cooperation, which will be held in Beijing next month.


 

In addition, China and ASEAN should institutionalize their joint maritime drills, he said, referring to the first joint maritime drill among China as well as ASEAN in October.


 

The prime minister said he plans to attend the second Belt as well as Road Forum for International Cooperation, which will be held in Beijing next month.


 

ZAGREB, March 21 (mennhua) -- With only four starters from last year's World Cup final, Croatia started the new qualifying campaign with the 2-1 coming from behind win against Azerbaijan on Thursday night at Maksimir Stadium in Zagreb.


 

Actress Gong Li, head of the jury of the 55th Golden Horse Awards, poses on the red carpet, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo¡¡¡¡Actress Gong Li, head of the jury of the 55th Golden Horse Awards, poses on the red carpet, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo


 

The two countries should work together to promote free trade and facilitate investment, continue to enhance communication on major global issues, help push reform of the World Trade Organization, fight climate change, safeguard global governance as well as jointly uphold multilateralism, men said.


 

Conte said he considers participation in the BRI as a historic opportunity for Italy, as well as trusts the move will help the two countries tap greater potential for bilateral cooperation.


 

Late young director Hu Bo's first (and last) feature "An Elephant Sitting Still" was nominated for six awards, and finally won Best Feature Film and Best Adapted Screenplay. Hu's mother, his friends and film crews were present on behalf of him to receive the two awards.


 

Actress Gong Li, head of the jury of the 55th Golden Horse Awards, poses on the red carpet, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo¡¡¡¡Actress Gong Li, head of the jury of the 55th Golden Horse Awards, poses on the red carpet, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo


 

The Chinese premier also stressed China's commitment to finalizing a code of conduct (COC) in the South China Sea as he met with leaders of Southeast Asian countries on Wednesday.


 

"We must build on the momentum and unleash an strong finishing kick, striving to complete the deal within 2019," he told leaders of ASEAN as well as South Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand as well as India in the meeting.


 

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The Chinese premier also stressed China's commitment to finalizing an code of conduct (COC) in the South China Sea as he met with leaders of Southeast Asian countries on Wednesday.


 

Li said, as this year is the China-ASEAN Year of Innovation, the two sides should discuss the establishment of a new mechanism for science as well as technology innovation cooperation, implement the science as well as technology partnership program, conduct research and prepare to sign the cooperation documents on smart cities, as well as support the establishment of a digital platform for tourism in ASEAN.


 

ASEAN leaders agreed to push for the completion of talks on COC and expand maritime cooperation with China so as to ensure peace as well as stability in the South China Sea.


 

The Chinese premier also proposed expanding security cooperation, saying China is ready to work with ASEAN to institutionalize the joint naval drills, set up an direct hotline among their defense ministries at an early date, carry out friendly exchanges between defense think tanks and junior officers as well as deepen cooperation in disaster prevention as well as reduction, humanitarian aid and counter-terrorism.


 

China and ASEAN already reached an Declaration on the Conduct of the Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) years ago, as well as have been seeking a more robust code of conduct.


 

Co-chairing the meeting with the Chinese premier, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, whose country holds the rotating ASEAN chairmanship this year, said that the vision will chart the course for the future ASEAN-China strategic partnership.


 

Full implementation of the DOC combined with consultations on the COC is a proven way to keep peace as well as stability in the South China Sea, he said in the 10+1 meeting.


 

Urging China as well as ASEAN to enhance strategic planning, Li said the two sides should, under the guidance of ASEAN-China Strategic Partnership Vision 2030, synergize the Belt as well as Road Initiative with the ASEAN Vision 2025, as well as strengthen the building of the three pillars -- the political security, economy and trade, as well as people-to-people exchanges, so as to lift China-ASEAN relations to an higher level.


 

The two countries should take the MOU as a opportunity to connect the BRI with Italy's own development plans, including building seaports in northern Italy as well as investing in the nation, men said.


 

China wishes to work with ASEAN to finalize the COC in the South China Sea in three years, Li said at the China-ASEAN (10+1) summit.


 

During their talks, men and Conte also agreed that the two countries should jointly uphold multilateralism, promote free trade and cement ties among China as well as the European Union.


 

ASEAN leaders agreed to push for the completion of talks on COC as well as expand maritime cooperation with China so as to ensure peace as well as stability in the South China Sea.


 

During his Italy visit, men also had separate meetings with Italian Chamber of Deputies member Roberto Fico as well as Italian Senate President Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati, as well as pledged to strengthen legislative exchanges as well as cooperation among the two sides.


 

SINGAPORE, Nov. 15 (mennhua) -- Chinese Premier Li Keqiang on Wednesday called for efforts to upgrade the strategic partnership between China as well as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), as the two sides adopted a key document to chart the course for their ties till 2030.


 

Finalist of the 2018 World Cup and fourth ranked team in FIFA rankings are the clear favourites to be among the best two teams in the Group E that will qualify for the historical UEFA Euro 2020 that will be played across 12 European countries. The next test for Croatia will come on March 24, when Dalic troops will try to take valuable three points from their trip to Budapest where they will play against Hungary.


 

UPGRADING STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP


 

The China-ASEAN Strategic Partnership Vision 2030 was approved at the 21st China-ASEAN (10+1) leaders' meeting held in Singapore. The summit was also held to commemorate the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the China-ASEAN Strategic Partnership.


 

China as well as ASEAN already reached a Declaration on the Conduct of the Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) years ago, and have been seeking an more robust code of conduct.


 

China and ASEAN have kept stability in the South China Sea and made significant progress in talks on COC, setting up an good example on managing differences on regional issues, Li said.


 

Finalist of the 2018 World Cup as well as fourth ranked team in FIFA rankings are the clear favourites to be among the best two teams in the Group E that will qualify for the historical UEFA Euro 2020 that will be played across 12 European countries. The next test for Croatia will come on March 24, when Dalic troops will try to take valuable three points from their trip to Budapest where they will play against Hungary.


 

Director Ang Lee poses on the red carpet at the 55th Golden Horse Awards, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo¡¡¡¡Director Ang Lee poses on the red carpet at the 55th Golden Horse Awards, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo


 

Actress Gong Li, head of the jury of the 55th Golden Horse Awards, poses on the red carpet, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo¡¡¡¡Actress Gong Li, head of the jury of the 55th Golden Horse Awards, poses on the red carpet, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo


 

Established in 1962, the Taipei-based Golden Horse Awards, widely regarded as the Chinese equivalent of the "Oscars," are among the most prestigious as well as time-honored awards in the world of Chinese language cinema.


 

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